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ADHD in children: Problems, symptoms and treatments

Kids Health What is it? Does your child fi nd it hard to focus? Kids with ADHD (Attention Defi cit Hyperactivity Disorder) are fi dgety and easily distracted. Th is makes it tough to stay “on task,” whether it’s listening to a teacher or fi nishing a chore. Can’t pay attention It’s one of the main symptoms of ADHD. Your child may fi nd it hard to listen to a speaker, follow directions, fi nish tasks, or keep track of her stuff .

She may daydream a lot and make careless mistakes. Or she may avoid activities that need concentration or seem boring to her. Hyperactive Another sign of ADHD: Your kid just can’t seem to sit still. He may run and climb on things all the time, even when indoors. When he’s sitting down, he tends to squirm, fi dget, or bounce. You also might notice he talks a lot and fi nds it hard to play quietly.

Impulsive You’ll notice that your kid may fi nd it hard to wait his turn. He may cut in line, interrupt others, or blurt out answers before the teacher fi nishes a question. What causes it? Kids with ADHD have less activity in areas of the brain that control attention. Th ey may also have imbalances in brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. It’s not clear what causes this to happen, but ADHD runs in families, so many experts believe genes play a role. How to get a diagnosis Th ere are no lab tests for ADHD. Instead, your child’s doctor will ask her questions, listen to your description of behavior problems, and look at her teacher’s comments.

To get a diagnosis, your child must show some combo of symptoms for 6 months, like not paying attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Th ey must have appeared no later than age 12. Types of ADHD Th e combined type is the most common, and your child has it if she doesn’t pay attention or is hyperactive and impulsive. In the predominantlyhyperactive/ impulsive type, she’s fi dgety and can’t control her impulses. If she has the predominantlyinattentive type, she fi nds it hard to focus but isn’t overly

active and usually doesn’t disrupt the classroom. Medications for ADHD Stimulant meds help increase your child’s attention span and control hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Studies suggest these drugs work in 65% to 80% of kids with ADHD. As with any medicine, there can be side eff ects. Discuss these with your doctor. Non stimulant drugs are options for some kids, too, but they also can have side eff ects. Counselling It can help your child learn to handle frustrations and build selfesteem.

It also teaches you some support strategies. One type of therapy, called social skills training, shows him how to take turns and share. Studies show that long-term treatment with a combo of drugs and behavioral therapy works better than medication alone. Special education Most kids with ADHD go to regular classrooms, but some do better in a place that’s got more structure. If your child goes to special education, he’ll get schooling that’s tailored to meet his learning style.

The role of routine You can give your child more structure at home if you lay out clear routines. Post a daily schedule that reminds her of what she’s supposed to do throughout the day. Th is helps her stay on task. It should include specifi c times to wake up, eat, play, do homework and chores, and go to bed. Your child’s diet Studies on diets have mixed results, but some experts believe food that’s good for the brain could be helpful.

Th ings that are high in protein, like eggs, meat, beans, and nuts, may help your child concentrate better. You may also want to replace simple carbs, like candy and white bread, with complex ones, like pears and whole-grain bread. Talk to your pediatrician before making any big changes in what your child eats. ADHD and junk food While many kids bounce off the walls after they eat junk food, there isn’t any strong evidence that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Th e role of food additives isn’t certain, either.

Some parents believe preservatives and food colorings make symptoms worse, and the American Academy of Pediatrics says it’s reasonable to avoid them. ADHD and Television Th e link between sitting in front of the tube and ADHD isn’t clear, but the American Academy of Pediatrics suggests you limit your young child’s screen time. Th e group discourages TV viewing for kids under 2 and suggests no more than 2 hours a day for older kids. To help your child develop attention skills, encourage activities like games, blocks, puzzles, and reading. Can you prevent ADHD? Th ere’s no surefi re way to keep your kid from getting it, but there are steps you can take to cut the risk. When you’re pregnant, avoid alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. Kids whose mothers smoke during pregnancy may be twice as likely to get ADHD. -webmd.com

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